These are not times we have chosen as holy days, but days God has chosen as holy days. Verses 2-7: Make a … vow”: This sets the gift … “Saying”: As follows. Quick outline of Leviticus. The last portion deals with the type of animals selected … Yet we often become so comfortable with our sins that we hardly even notice them. Genesis 19:5 And they called unto Lot, and said unto him, Where are the men which came in to thee this night? > Ye shall keep my statutes. CHAPTER 26. The text simply says, don’t do it. For — God redeems his people — so they might be witnesses to the world — showing others what it means to be loved by God — what it means to love God — and what it means to live in the presence of a holy God. Though he may reject older views as to the origin and authority of ritual, he may still benefit from the practice of ritual in holy living. It was declared unclean, probably, from its feeding on serpents and other venomous reptiles, as well as rearing its young on the same food. They supposed the people were in exile because their God was not strong enough to protect them. In order to read Leviticus well we must therefore remember these two things: (1) the many ways that Jesus has become the far greater priest who intercedes for us on the basis of his perfect and far greater atoning sacrifice; and (2) that obedience to God’s law is not meant to earn his salvation but to be an appropriate response to the salvation he has so richly provided. Each of these would be worthy of an entire sermon in its own right. I will not accept it. The same Torah that stresses the distance between His sublime perfection and our earthy limitations urges us to strive to reduce that distance. We use cookies to improve your experience on our site and bring you ads that might interest you. We are much more comfortable talking about the Bible’s detailed ethical regulations than its bodily ones. 21 And thou shalt not let any of thy seed pass through the fire to Molech, neither shalt thou profane the name of thy God: I am the LORD. This whole book is about how the nation of Israel needs to live in order to survive living in the presence of such a powerful, holy being. 19:10). The pursuit of the unattainable can be a means of fulfillment. This highlights the distinction between charity and gleaning. The first part of the book of Leviticus deals with offerings and the one … “I am the LORD your God”: This phrase, used over 50 times, assets the uniqueness of the One True and Living God, who calls His people to holiness as He is holy, and calls them to reject all other gods. Date Written . 2 “Speak to the entire assembly of Israel and say to them: ‘Be holy because I, the Lord your God, am holy. Gleaning is a process in which landowners have an obligation to provide poor and marginalized people access to the means of production (in Leviticus, … Leviticus 19:1 And the LORD spoke to Moses, saying, Leviticus 20:7 Sanctify yourselves therefore, and be you holy: for I am the LORD your God. Mat 19:5 And said, For this cause shall a man leave father and mother, and shall cleave to his wife: and they twain shall be one flesh? 17 You shall not hate in your heart anyone of your kin; you shall reprove your neighbor, or you will incur guilt yourself. 1 This discussion of purity and holiness in the book of Leviticus follows the analysis of Jacob Milgrom, Leviticus, 3 vols., Anchor Bible (New York: Doubleday, 1991-2000). 5 “ ‘Suppose you sacrifice a friendship offering to me. 1 And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying, 2 “Speak to all the congregation of the children of Israel, and say to them: ‘You shall be holy, for I the Lord your God am holy. Our opportunity to practice the golden rule is chiefly in our relations to those who are physically near to us, our literal neighbors. Leviticus 19:31 Regard not them that have familiar spirits, neither seek after wizards, to be defiled by them: I [am] the LORD your God. That means both OT and NT. Mat 19:6 Wherefore they are no more twain, but one flesh. In charity, people voluntarily give to others who are in need. Leviticus 18:19 "Also thou shalt not approach unto a woman to uncover her nakedness, as long as she is put apart for her uncleanness." Ye shall make you no idols--Idolatry had been previously forbidden ( Exodus 20:4 Exodus 20:5), but the law was repeated here with reference to some particular forms of it that were very prevalent among the neighboring nations. God. covering; Leviticus 19:23 unclean; Leviticus 19:30 … 19:10). Notably, Jesus’ invocation of Levitical law in Matthew 5 does not ease these overall ethical guidelines, but rather draws them tighter; after all, Jesus announces in the same chapter that he has come “not to abolish [the law or the prophets] but to fulfill” (Matthew 5:17). Ironically, though, bodily impurity is often easier to take care of. 21:5; 2 Sam. 19:18: “Do not seek revenge or bear a grudge against one of your people, but love your neighbor as yourself. And the LORD spoke to Moses and Aaron, saying, “Speak to the children of Israel, and say to them: ‘When any man has a discharge from his body, his discharge is unclean. Various Laws. Throughout Leviticus, Moses is speaking to the children of Israel, giving instructions for living in the land, under the Law.Moses is not setting down rules and regulations for … 1. In the Holiness Code (Leviticus 17-27), holiness extends from the sanctuary “to the land and its occupants.”2 It is what sets the people of Israel apart from the peoples around them. Impurity, while still the opposite of holiness, is no longer relegated to the realm of ritual, but instead extends to personal conduct. The context makes this clear. But here some rules and instructions concerning vows are given, which a man was not obliged to make, but which he did of his own freewill and good pleasure. The Book of Leviticus (/ l ɪ ˈ v ɪ t ɪ k ə s /) is the third book of the Torah and of the Old Testament; scholars generally agree that it developed over a long period of time, reaching its present form during the Persian Period between 538–332 BC.. The practices described in this passage name the kinds of everyday injustices that not only many of us have experienced, but also that many of us have committed. 11:11). 2. All that “mess” is the stuff of life, even the source of life: “The life of the flesh is in the blood” (Leviticus 17:11, 14). Before we think about these verses, though, it will be helpful to consider all that is left out before, after, and in-between these lines from Leviticus 19. Leviticus 19 is the nineteenth chapter of the Book of Leviticus in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. "The heron": The word so translated only occurs in the prohibited list of food and has been variously … 1 # Short Commentary & Lesson From Leviticus 1.1 -4 . 357 votes, 13 comments. The intent of others is not so plain. The same expression appears in Chapter 19, verse 12, in connection with swearing falsely. Not even a man to his own wife, and much less to another woman. Lev. There are perhaps dozens of times every day that we have the opportunity to look out for our neighbor, but we look out only for ourselves: we do not leave some of our income for the poor, we deal in falsehoods to save or make a little more money, we bear grudges against family and friends. 36 You shall have honest scales, honest weights, an honest ephah, and an honest hin: I am the Lord. Dr. Susanna Metz. They call for just, humane, and sensitive treatment of others. Here in Leviticus 19, the lectionary has managed to find a few relatively continuous verses that should not make your liturgist squirm or blush to read aloud in Sunday worship. Traditionally, both Jews and Christians credit Moses as the author of Leviticus. Such theoretical distinctions would in any case not be important. The book of Leviticus is a minefield full of topics that nobody wants to talk about in church: animal sacrifice, blood-sprinkling, moldy walls, oozing sores, gashed flesh, “a swelling or an eruption or a spot” (Leviticus 14:56), and bodily emissions of any kind. Yet, the Priestly authors of the book of Leviticus did not worry about bodies out of either prudishness or prurience. The practical effect of this legislation was that when a man had religious duties … God (15) Blind (15) Deaf (14) Stumbling-block (13) Curse (12) Fear (12) Lord (10) Shall (5) Nor (5) Shalt (4) Person (4) Revile (2) Revere (2) Front (2) Place (1) Falling (1) Cause (1) Hearing (1) Reverently (1) Show (1) Man (1) One (1) Advantage (1) Taking (1) Respect (1) Treating (1) Afraid (1) Dost (1) Keep (1) Verse Info. Sometimes seen as inaccessible, Leviticus nevertheless contains important material about holiness. FINDING JESUS IN LEVITICUS The ethical factor is primary, but it is not the only one. The Molech idol, where pagans sacrificed their children to a false god. Holiness is a mark of distinction. In six days God created the heavens and the earth, and on the seventh day He rested. To profane the name of God means to impair His reputation in the non‑Israelite world. 4 w Do not turn to idols x or make for yourselves any gods of cast metal: I am the Lord your God. 15:19). That is what we’re talking about. Do not wear clothing woven of two kinds of material.” And Deuteronomy 22:9–11 commands, “Do not plant two kinds of seed in your vineyard; if you do, not only the crops you plant but also the fruit of the vineyard will be defiled. Leviticus 27:1 "And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying," After he had delivered the body of laws in the preceding chapter, which by the close of the last seem to have been finished. Our passage is apparently the oldest written version of the principle. 19:27 You shall not round off the hair on your temples or mar the edges of your beard. Author: Moses was the author of the Book of Leviticus. Most of its chapters (1–7, 11–27) consist of God's speeches to Moses, which God commands Moses to repeat to the Israelites. It appears in various forms, positive and negative; but all of them demand for others the same kind of treatment we want for ourselves. Uncleanness of the body is visible, easily diagnosed, and readily counteracted with examination by the priests, ritual baths, and spending some time “outside the camp.” Uncleanness of the heart is less easily resolved. Thus, Ezekiel (who, we have seen, shows affinity to the Holiness Code) declares that, when the people of Judah brought the punishment of exile upon themselves, they profaned the name of God. Date of Writing: The Book of Leviticus was written between 1440 and 1400 B.C. Leviticus 19:2 New International Version (NIV). You could sum up the book of Leviticus with God’s repeated command: ... (Mark 7:18–19), but the call to holiness still stands—Peter even cites Leviticus when he encourages us to be holy in all our behavior (1 Peter 1:15–16). 19 The Lord told Moses 2 to say to the community of Israel: I am the Lord your God. 17 You shall not hate in your heart anyone of your kin; you shall reprove your neighbor, or you will incur guilt yourself. Today we would call this a "consumer protection law." The prime emphasis (of the holiness described in Leviticus 19) is ethical. The authors of Leviticus worried about bodies because bodies, with their life-and-death messiness left unchecked, could pollute the sanctuary, the place where the community encounters God. We do it because God says, “I am the Lord your God” (Lev. When they were back on their own soil, strong and prosperous, God’s name would be “sanctified in the sight of all the peoples”–that is, the nations would recognize His power and understand that the exile was not evidence of His impotence, but of His unswerving justice (Ezekiel 36:16 and following). In verse 28, God is warning the Jewish people about a pagan practice at funerals, where pagans would mutilate/mark themselves to appease their false gods. Light the candles every night with our special guests, Reading The Prohibition Against Homosexuality In Context. This set … (1-3) The general principle regarding an abnormal bodily discharge. God (Yahweh)—This isn’t a cop-out. Jesus of Nazareth, Hillel’s younger contemporary, declared that the commandment of Leviticus 19:18 is second in importance only to the command to love God (Mark 12:28-30.). Some of the more ancient Hebrew sources for this chapter, are the Masoretic Text, Dead Sea Scrolls, and Samaritan … 28:1; Mark 16:2; Acts 20:7; Rev. This is a good and noble thing to do, but it is not what Leviticus is talking about. 20 d And you shall not lie sexually with your neighbor’s wife and so make yourself unclean with her. This is a good and noble thing to do, but it is not what Leviticus is talking about. How to give offerings (Leviticus 1–7) Aaron and sons ordained (Leviticus 8–10) Cleanliness laws for the congregation (Leviticus … Leviticus 19 World English Bible (WEB). You must keep your body in check, but you must also do what is right in the eyes of God.4. They didn’t even think bodies are inherently “bad,” certainly not morally offensive. I am the Lord your God.] In Chapters 19 & 20, to which we now come, we have a series of miscellaneous instructions covering various situations and problems of daily life that were faced by the people of God in that day and, at one level or another, which we face in our own lives today. 31. Leviticus 10:16. Scripture is the word from God. 3 “‘Each one of you shall respect his mother and his father. 2020.11.30. The “seed of copulation” (Literally “outpouring of seed”), in intercourse (verse 18), or at other times (verses 16-17), also caused pollution (compare Exodus 19:15; Lev. When Hillel, at the beginning of the Christian era, was asked to sum up the entire Torah briefly, he replied: “What is hateful to you, do not do to your fellow.” (This negative form of the golden rule was apparently proverbial in Hillel’s time for it appears in practically the same words in the apocryphal book of Tobit (4:15).) Such are the components of the way of life called kadosh (holy). 1 Peter 1:15–16 references Leviticus 19:2 when it says: “like the Holy One who called you, be holy yourselves also in all your behavior; because it is written, ‘You shall be holy, for I am holy.’” Those who are redeemed by the mercies of God offer different sacrifices today; they offer themselves (Romans 12:1). At this point in the story, Moses has already passed along many, many laws to the people of Israel on God’s behalf. Chapter 22 . Leviticus is the place where the best of intentions to read through the Bible often stall out. Among ethical duties, that of sexual decency is singled out for particular emphasis. However, the broader principle of the several statutes that forbid "mixing" in various ways is that God wanted His people to pursue purity and quality. 19 c “You shall not approach a woman to uncover her nakedness while she is in her menstrual uncleanness. Then do it in the right way. Exodus 19:3 Then Moses went up to God, and the LORD called to him from the mountain, "This is what you are to tell the house of Jacob and explain to the sons of Israel: Exodus 25:22 And I will meet with you there above the mercy seat, between the two cherubim that are over the Ark of the Testimony; I will commune with you about all that I command you regarding the Israelites. (acts 2:38) The accusation you brought against me is a huge one. Kiddush haShem has no connection with what we now call “public relations.” It does not mean currying favor with the Gentiles. No sacrifice was required, but the man and woman had simply to wash and wait until evening (verse 16-18). 19:10). Any behavior that brings public disgrace on Jews and Judaism is hillul haShem, profanation of the divine Name; any action that enhances the dignity and honor of Judaism is kiddush haShem, sanctification of the Name. a standing image--that is, "upright pillar." What distracts us from full-hearted, full-throated praise? Leviticus 19:34 [But] the stranger that dwelleth with you shall be unto you as one born among you, and thou shalt love him as thyself; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt: I [am] the LORD your God. 3-4 Respect your father and your mother, honor the Sabbath, and don’t make idols or images. Leviticus 19:1-37.A REPETITION OF SUNDRY LAWS. Ye shall make you no idols--Idolatry had been previously forbidden ( Exodus 20:4 Exodus 20:5), but the law was repeated here with reference to some particular forms of it that were very prevalent among the neighboring nations. Leviticus 19:1 Then the LORD said to Moses, Leviticus 20:7 Consecrate yourselves, therefore, and be holy, because I am the LORD your God. 4 The preceding two paragraphs are excerpted and adapted from a sermon the author preached on February 23, 2011, at the School of Theology at Sewanee, the University of the South, and that was printed the same year in “Tuesday Morning,” a collection of sermon helps edited by the Rev. I am Yahweh your God. I am the Lord your God(4 “‘Do not turn to idols or make metal gods for yourselves. Levi family was chosen by God to act as priests and assistants in the Tabernacle. 15:19). In their zeal, they forgot that the positive form occurs first in the Torah. Not even a man to his own wife, and much less to another woman. 1. Leviticus 18:19 "Also thou shalt not approach unto a woman to uncover her nakedness, as long as she is put apart for her uncleanness." Leviticus 19:1-37.A REPETITION OF SUNDRY LAWS. All Rights Reserved. 22 h You shall not lie with a male as with a woman; it is an … This highlights the distinction between charity and gleaning. The statement that one who offers his offspring to Molech profanes the name of God [appears in Leviticus 18:21]. To the biblical author, these ceremonial rulings are divine ordinances with the same authority as the ethical commandments. In charity, people voluntarily give to others who are in need. Holiness is not the responsibility of the priests alone; instead, as Jacob Milgrom says, “Israel attains it and priests sustain it.”3 Holiness is dynamic, it can be achieved and lost; it requires constant vigilance. (Isaiah 59:2) Also, God asks us to repent of our sin before He forgives us. When God tells us that we are to love our neighbor as ourselves, He's meaning that we are even to love those who are evil. Exodus 19:3 Then Moses went up to God, and the LORD called to him from the mountain, "This is what you are to tell the house of Jacob and explain to the sons of Israel: Exodus 25:22 And I will meet with you there above the mercy seat, between the two cherubim that are over the Ark of the Testimony; I will commune with you about all that I command you regarding the Israelites. Jews must so live and act as to win for their God the respect of all mankind. Anything left over until the third day must be burned up. The stranger is to be accorded the same love we give our fellow citizens. Important characters in Leviticus. Reading Psalm 119, one can appreciate why Jesus’ contemporaries objected to his ambivalence about the law. In the following century, Rabbi Akiba declared it to be “the great principle of the Torah” (Sifra). These are the actions that should make us blush. Leviticus 19:27 does not attach any condemnatory language to the forbidden act, nor does it stipulate any penalty for those who commit that act. The prohibition is apparently treated as an unenforceable regulation, since no civil penalty is attached to it, akin to most of the other laws and commands in Leviticus 19. Our chapter begins with the startling declaration that by these means we can and should try to be holy like God. The Holiness Code of Leviticus did not apply to anyone anywhere, until God gave it to Moses, for Israel to obey, in the land of Israel, Deuteronomy 4:5, 14, 5:31, 6:1. '” (Avot deRabbi Natan, 27). 22 Thou shalt not lie with mankind, as with womankind: it is … Ver. This letter is quite disrespectful to those of us who do take every word of Leviticus (and the rest of the Torah) seriously, as a binding contract we have with God Himself. The Torah demands the control–not the suppression of–the sexual instinct. The priests must be ritually clean, and they must ensure that the sanctuary remains clean, too, lest its pollution drive God out.1. How the Five Books of Moses are divided up into weekly portions. We are to strive to be holy like God is holy, to be perfect like God is perfect; God’s “quintessential nature” is holiness.5 Leviticus invites us to order our life together in ways that draw us closer to God. Leviticus 23:3 "Six days shall work be done: but the seventh day [is] the sabbath of rest, a holy convocation; ye shall do no work [therein]: it [is] the sabbath of the LORD in all your dwellings." Only in recent centuries, especially in our own, has the average person had the knowledge, the opportunity, and the obligation to apply the golden rule on a global scale. But, actually, there is virtually no difference in meaning between the two versions. For the Gentiles regarded the defeat of Judah as a defeat for Judah’s God as well. If a man lay … Leviticus 11:19 "And the stork, the heron after her kind, and the lapwing, and the bat." I am the Lord your God.. 5 When you offer a sacrifice to ask my blessing, [] be sure to follow my instructions. We do it because God says, “I am the Lord your God” (Lev. Notice that these verses contain the basic principle that materials of widely differing character and texture are not to be combined. Do not plow with an ox and a donkey … This chapter outlines various regulations concerning the priesthood. It also shows that God graciously provides a means of atonement for sin through the sacrificial shedding of blood. 1. Some of these are directed against pagan and superstitious practices deemed incompatible with biblical religion. The book of Leviticus was written between 1440-1400 BC, … You shall not practice augury or witchcraft. LEVITICUS, The third book of the Pentateuch takes its name from Levi one of the twelve sons of Jacob. Moses—He led the Israelites from Egypt to Sinai. Robbing a Gentile is doubly sinful, since it adds to the sin of robbery the further sin of hillul haShem (Tosefta Baba Kama 10:15). 3 ‘Every one of you shall revere his mother and his father, and keep My Sabbaths: I am the Lord your God. We do it because God says, “I am the Lord your God” (Lev. 23:10-11; 1 Sam. This highlights the distinction between charity and gleaning. The laborer is to be promptly paid. 19 Yahweh spoke to Moses, saying, 2 “Speak to all the congregation of the children of Israel, and tell them, ‘You shall be holy; for I, Yahweh your God, am holy. The original text of Leviticus 19, like the rest of Leviticus, was written in Hebrew. The Law of Holiness is not addressed to selected individuals. 21 You shall not give any of your children to e offer them 2 to f Molech, and so g profane the name of your God: I am the L ord. The Molech idol, where pagans sacrificed their children to a false god. 28:9, 19). 2.6m members in the atheism community. The sin is only against God. 6 You must eat it on the same day you sacrifice it or on the next day. Do not plant your field with two kinds of seed. 18 You shall not take vengeance or bear a grudge against any of your people, but you shall love your neighbor as yourself: I am the Lord. Then someone said to him, ‘Foolish fellow! And I will accept it from you. The ethical injunctions of Chapter 19 are interspersed with ritual commandments. The physical process by which life is generated is to be treated responsibly. Therefore, to retrieve His reputation, God would purify and restore Israel. Copyright © 2002-2020 My Jewish Learning. Behold, it was burnt — This justified Moses’s suspicion that some mistake might be committed in the holy things; for upon inquiry he found that the priests had burned upon the altar those parts of the people’s sin-offering which they ought to have eaten, Leviticus 6:26; Leviticus 6:29. Similarly, Christians are to pursue pure and godly character. The book brings to each of us the question: what in your life is impeding your encounter with God? Throughout Leviticus, Moses is speaking to the children of Israel, giving instructions for living in the land, under the Law. Most of its chapters (1–7, 11–27) consist of God's speeches to Moses, which God commands Moses to repeat to the Israelites.This takes place within the story of the … Leviticus 19:27 You must not cut off the hair at the sides of your head or clip off the edges of your beard. I am holy, and you must be holy too! Rabbi Tarfon said: “Do not avoid an undertaking that has no limit or a task that cannot be completed. In these contexts, the phrase seems to require no explanation. It was declared unclean, probably, from its feeding on serpents and other venomous reptiles, as well as rearing its young on the same food. In ancient times, most people had little awareness of events beyond their immediate vicinity. It requires us to deserve the approbation of others, whether we actually obtain it or not. Leviticus 26:1 Leviticus 26:2.OF IDOLATRY. Pronunced: TORE-uh, Origin: Hebrew, the Five Books of Moses. It is like the case of one who was hired to take water from the sea and pour it out on the land. 19 Also thou shalt not approach unto a woman to uncover her nakedness, as long as she is put apart for her uncleanness. Yet it also brings that question to our society, our culture, and our faith as a whole. Why Sacrifice? It contains laws on a variety of topics, and is attributed by legend to Moses. What therefore God hath joined together, let not man put asunder. Welcome to r/atheism, the web's largest atheist forum. The Holiness Code of Leviticus did not apply to anyone anywhere, until God gave it to Moses, for Israel to obey, in the land of Israel, Deuteronomy 4:5, 14, 5:31, 6:1. God gave the message of Leviticus 19:28 to Israel as they were traveling from Egypt to Canaan. It enables us to judge a proposed course of action, but it does not provide us the means of proposing a course of action; that always requires an effort of creative imagination. Leviticus 19:19 says, “Keep my decrees. Its objective is not to produce a few saints, withdrawn from the world in contemplative or ascetic practices. A bird of benevolent temper and held in the highest estimation in all Eastern countries. image of stone--that is, an obelisk, inscribed with hieroglyphical and … The task is endless, but it is infinitely rewarding. Author of the Book of Leviticus . Leviticus 18:4 "Ye shall do my judgments, and keep mine ordinances, to walk therein: I [am] the LORD your God." Achieving holiness requires ethical behavior, not only ritual precision. Leviticus 19 Contemporary English Version (CEV) Moral and Religious Laws. This concept was transformed in Rabbinic Judaism from a questionable theological proposition into a powerful moral challenge. Leviticus 15 – Laws Concerning Bodily Discharges A. Bodily discharges from a man. This is a good and noble thing to do, but it is not what Leviticus is talking about.