Field and laboratory experiments were conducted from January to April 2012. If you have any enquiries please AskRSPO or visit our contact page, Unit 13A-1, Level 13A, Menara EtiqaNo.3, Jln Bangsar Utama 159000, Kuala LumpurMalaysia, Sona Topas Tower Lvl. That year, sky-polluting haze affected the health of millions of people, caused 100,000 premature deaths[3], and triggered an estimated US$16 billion in losses in Indonesia alone[4] . human impact. All Rights Reserved. Oil palm was planted in 1996 and palms were 15 years old during this experiment, and still at peak production stage. During the seedling period and when the plant is still very young, the addition of humid materials that is sprayed on the ground around the plant becomes important to accelerate growth. In Malaysia, oil palm has been successfully planted on peat soils for two generations and into its third now. The area of peatland within palm oil concessions, however, is much larger, and many are unplanted but degraded. In coastal plantings, emphasis is placed on proper drainage and water management. In the past decades, large-scale peat fires in Southeast Asia have increased in frequency and intensity. This crop requires annual evenly distributed rainfall of 2500 to 4000 mm or 150 to 150 mm monthly. Dr Ir Suwardi, M.Agr, is a lecturer at the Department of Soil Sciences and Land Resources at the Faculty of Agriculture, Bogor Institute of Agriculture (IPB). In oil palm plantations at least 6 species of leguminous crops are planted for the benefits they provide. This prevents over-draining and deterioration of fragile acids sulphate and peat soils. From paludiculture starch, edible oils or wood can be harvested[5]. In comparison, oil palm planted in peat land by large companies already have productivity levels of between 20 to 30 tons per hectares per year. 26Karet - Setiabudi, Jakarta Selatan 12920Indonesia, RSPO China, RSPO Europe, RSPO North America, © 2020 Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil. For crops that are not yet producing fruits, nitrogen fertilizer needs to be given in a higher dose. There must be adequate macro and micro fertilizing. [1] Miettinen et al (2016). The peat soil characteristics are presented in Table 1. With a 21 E Kebayoran Baru In peat soil areas, the need for ground cover crop establishment becomes more crucial. Development of oil palm plantations on peat land is therefore not m new. The seedling must placed into the planting hole by carefully, put it in stable or hefty. The low productivity of palm oil smallholders planting in peat soil are mostly caused by a lack of knowledge and also capital, so that they are not aware or capable to conduct the necessary special treatment for planting oil palm in peat land. To deal with these issues some mayor players in the oil palm industry have set up the Roundtable of Sustainable Palm Oil. Slit the bottom of the polybag using a sharp knife or blade. This management is important as peat land are usually found in flood-prone low land during the rainy season and are prone to drought during the dry season, Peat has high water capillary properties and thus dries up quickly and soil water cannot rise up to the surface. Oil palm cultivation has negative effects on peatlands. Over 5 per cent of global CO2 emissions are caused by peatland degradation resulting from drainage. This drainage leads to oxidation of the soil which in turn leads to subsidence and carbon emissions. Privacy Policy. Oil palm plantations keep a high water table at 50-70 cm by following RSPO’s Best Management Practices for oil palm cultivation on peatland so as to obtain better yields. Indonesia is fortunate to have the right environment to develop palm oil. Approximately 90% of world palm oil production takes place in Indonesia and Malaysia. This crop can grow well in almost all types of land as long as there is adequate rainfall, of more than 2,500 mm per year. A bilingual platform to serve a healthier and more constructive public discourse on sustainability in the palm oil industry. Calum, phosphor, nitrogen, magnesium and boron fertilizers are the important additives. Rewetting of peatlands also helps to conserve and rehabilitate valuable habitats for many animal species. CC=canopy cover (see Methods). It is important to maintain the water table as around 60 cm in the drainage canals all year round, so that the oil palm planted in the peat land can continue to get enough water. Credit: Photo taken by researcher Stephanie Evers Around 71 percent of oil palm plantations in Sarawak are located on non-peat soils, so Wilmar can continue to source from those plantations. 2010). As Indian climate is not suitable for evenly distribution of the rain, farmers are advised to go for assured irrigated conditions for oil palm cultivation. Since the 1980s, oil palm has successfully been grown on peatlands in Southeast Asia. tropical soils, soil management, oil palm, marginal soils, soil limitations JOPE 2013,4:1-16 1. conversion of forests on peat soil into oil palm plantations. With 400,000 hectares already planted from the area of approximately 1.6 million hectares of peat in Sarawak, food from the palms can reach about 80 … For example, the impact of temperature could be reduced by providing better coverage of the soil … Sky-polluting haze from peat fires in 2015 cost many lives and billions in resources in Indonesia. The productivity of oil palms managed by smallholders in peat land are in general still low, at around 10 to 15 tons per hectares per year. Oil palm is best grown in peat land with thin layers of peat, below 50 cm. This can be achieved by digging drainage canals that will enable maintaining the water table at the desired depth. The experimental site was level and nine plots, each measuring approximately 0.75 hectare were used for the study. Oil palm cultivation has negative effects on peatlands. An option to provide land for oil palm planting without threatening the future of tropical rain forests is the rehabilitation of anthropogenic grassland, created by human clearance of natural forest biomes a long time ago. Peat land have long been used to grow palm oil by both companies and smallholders because oil palm has shown to be able to grow well in such a poor type of soil as long as the practice is well managed. They will be able to gain more profit because of higher yields. Jenderal Sudirman Kav. 85 % or more of this production cost goes into the purchase of fertilizers alone. Most oil palm roots are concentrated in the top 50 cm of the peat soil. During the rainy seasons, these water gates are left open while in dry seasons, they should remain closely shut. Several certification schemes for sustainable palm oil exist, of which the most widely used is that of the international Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil . As of 2015, industrial plantations covered 4.3 million hectares (27 per cent) of peatlands in Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, and Borneo. To key to maintain the moistness of at the landlady in managing the water level. Jakarta Selatan 12120 Because a peat fire can burn underground, it is very difficult to control. Peatlands in their natural state are wet organic soils formed over thousands of years from plant remains, and fall under the classification of organic soils. Telong, Naman, Bayas and Gedong soil series. Wet peatland does not burn because the moist conditions will keep the fire from starting. Growing demand for palm oil is a key driver of tropical peat swamp forest clearance and drainage (Carlson et al. The measurement had been conducted from September 2016 to April 2017 in West Kalimantan, Indonesia using portable infrared gas analyzer EGM 4. In such a peat land, no physical treatment needs to be conducted. A sapric peat maturity level was found at the 0 – 20 cm layers of oil palm plantation and the 0 – 10 cm layer of the secondary forest (Table 1). Globally, a few definitions are applied, which differ according to the percentage of organic matter and minimum thickness of the organic layers. Another way to prevent the trees from slapping is by adding minerals in the soil where the tree is being planted. For. BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR OIL PALM CULTIVATION ON PEAT: USING ZEOLITE AS SOIL CONDITIONER 626 Malaysian Palm Oil Board, Ministry of Plantation Industries and Commodities, Malaysia P. O. The study was conducted at the oil palm plantation of the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) located at Sessang, Sarawak. Cultivation of oil palm on peat comes with certain challenges, like high CO2 emissions, peat soil subsidence, consequent flooding, and productivity loss. Over 5 per cent of global CO2 emissions are caused by peatland degradation resulting from drainage. Cultivation of oil palm on peat comes with certain challenges, like high CO2 emissions, peat soil subsidence, consequent flooding, and productivity loss. High productivity and short trunk are criteria that are important in determining the choice of the variety. Land cover distribution in the peatlands of Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Borneo in 2015 with changes since 1990. Search for Supply Chain Certificate Holders, RSPO Remediation and Compensation Procedure, Public Consultation - RSPO Independant Smallholder Standard, 1ST Public Consultation Revised RSPO Principles and Criteria, 2nd public consultation - RSPO Principles & Criteria review and RSPO Smallholder standard, 2nd public consultation - RSPO Principles & Criteria review, RSPO High Forest Cover Countries Consultancy Report, Revision of RSPO Organic & Peat Soil Classification. Researchers now have a clear message: the greatest cause of peat fires are humans. In the dry season of 2015, fires in Southeast Asia produced more emissions in a few months than the annual output of Japan or Germany; on some days, fires exceeded the daily emissions of the United States[2]. agriculture Article Soil N2O Emissions under Di erent N Rates in an Oil Palm Plantation on Tropical Peatland Auldry Chaddy 1,2,*, Lulie Melling 2, Kiwamu Ishikura 3 and Ryusuke Hatano 1 1 Laboratory of Soil Science, Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Hokkaido 060-8589, Japan; hatano@chem.agr.hokudai.ac.jp 2 Sarawak Tropical Peat Research Institute, Lot 6035, Kuching … Indonesia’s peat land cover a surface of some 14.9 million hectares, mainly in Sumatra, Kalimantan and Papua. Oil palm yield on peat varies significantly under the various type of peat soil i.e. In the past 15 years, peatland … Further, Wilmar’s policy doesn’t prohibit it from sourcing from the 29 percent of palm … With an average production of 20 -25 tons per hectare per year, Indonesia would be able to churn out four tons of Crude Palm Oil (CPO) per hectare per year. The most effective way to reduce carbon losses from oil palm plantations on peat soil is to reduce the rate of R h. The strong influence of temperature and WTD on R h suggest that means of controlling soil surface temperatures and WTD are the best means of mitigating carbon losses from the peat. Peat swamp deforestation and drainage for new oil palm plantations in North Selangor Peat Swamp Forest, Malaysia. The peat is classified as Haplohemist. 2012), especially in Southeast Asia, where 68% of the world’s tropical peatlands are located (Yu et al. 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